Fathopesenergy
Research in Progress
FatHopes Energy is constantly on the lookout for better ways to do things. The company believes in constant innovation and improvement, as this is the only way to maintain its position as a market leader. For FHE it is imperative to take bold steps with clear goals, even though the ultimate outcome may be uncertain and this will hopefully enable the company to grow and develop as it progresses.

The research division, in FatHopes Energy assists the group in developing better technologies, methods and practices for the improvement of overall efficiency.

A guiding principle behind research at FHE, is to make products more efficient economically, socially and environmentally, as well as meet  client demands more effectively. Further, FHE’s research findings will significantly spur Malaysia's biofuel agenda locally, and promote the country’s attractiveness for foreign investment in the biofuel sector.

FatHopes Energy’s research division was established with the purpose of finding a feasible business model for the collection and conversion of locally used cooking oil into biodiesel – a renewable, environmentally-compliant substitute to conventional diesel.

      

FHE’s findings prove that when used cooking oil collection is integrated with biodiesel production, we are able to operate a winning business model that is independent of government subsidies.

The company works closely with universities in Malaysia and internationally, to develop a sustainable Generation II feedstock for biodiesel production. The solution FHE is developing has the potential to absorb harmful carbon dioxide from the environment and convert it into organic oil, through the use of sunlight.

Pilot projects have been conducted on small scales, which have presented promising results. Without the help of Malaysia’s top universities, success in these projects would not have been possible to achieve.


EXTERNAL DEVELOPMENT

FatHopes is currently undertaking research in the following areas:

a) Alternative waste streams to biofuel
FHE is currently breaking ground on the processes and costs involved in the conversion of some of the most troublesome waste streams into biodiesel. The company is currently working on converting waste streams like palm oil mill effluent, palm fatty acids, palm acid oils, yellow grease from sewage systems and grease trap waste into biodiesel.

Strong collaboration with international counterparts has enabled FHE to transfer a significant amount of technological and intellectual property into Malaysia. Leveraging on this network, FHE persistently searches out means to increase production of waste-derived biofuels at the most cost-effective rate.


b) Micro and Macro algal biofuels
Through our close partnership with Universiti Malaya, one of Malaysia's pioneer research hubs on second-generation biofuel feedstock, the company has been brought to the cutting edge of biofuel research and development. With the university’s over 30 years of experience in this specialized field of alternative fuel, FHE is confident that the jointly led projects will be a success.

FHE is presently exploring the feasibility of wide upstream production of algal biomass for biofuel production. Widespread utilization of this resource as a raw material for the biofuel industry will surely augur well for our nation and its development.


Additionally, FHE has also collaborated with University Science Malaysia on cultivating a marine crop for alternative biofuel feedstock generation. The cultivation project is currently ongoing, for updates please visit FHE’s info center. With USM’s specialization in marine livestock cultivation FHE looks forward to identifying the optimal saltwater strain, to maximize the production of biofuel.

Along with strain identification FHE is exploring the cultivation of various multi-faceted crops in a symbiotic ecosystem. As biofuel crop cannot be grown sustainably unless integrated with supporting systems, it is crucial that tests  return with encouraging results.

To build capacity for algal biofuels locally, FHE has established a partnership with the Indian Phycological Society Marine Biotechnology Laboratory at India's Delhi University.The university’s focus on  algal carbon sequestration, algae-derived biodiesel, marine biotechnology and the marine environment, as well as the application of science & technology for societal benefit. This guidance will allow for the development of sustainable feedstock cultivation in Malaysia. Currently in a knowledge and technology transfer agreement, FHE shares the priority of developing high-value products derived from the marine environment, which are also linked to biofuel production.

FHE is enthusiastic to see these projects implemented successfully, and appeal and invite broad private sector involvement in this area. The company is on the constant look out for partners and synergistic collaborators to help achieve the eventual goal faster and more collaboratively.

Meticulous attention to detail has proven key to developing products and projects that break new ground in the biofuel industry. For more information of any of our projects, please contact us.

INTERNAL DEVELOPMENT

a) Oil recovery from Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Presently, the company is developing a production route map to recover oil from palm oil mill effluent for biodiesel production. Producing biodiesel from this waste is one of the most viable solutions available today, however the cooperation of palm oil mill owners is essential in order to guarantee the success of such a system.

Currently assessing the potential economic performance and efficiency and yield optimization, the company is eager to release its comprehensive findings on the feasibility of this project upon completion of the same.

b) Yellow grease and grease trap oil recovery
Having identified sophisticated methods to recover waste oil from yellow grease and grease trap waste, FHE is confident of achieving a greater edge in a field where variety and consistency of waste streams are pivotal to the stabilization of revenue.

As yellow grease and grease trap waste currently poses a hindrance and forms an additional cost factor for municipalities, this solution offers multiple benefits to all stakeholders, making it a multiple bottom-line project.

 


PLANTATION


At FatHopes Energy, we consistently devise and develop alternative feedstock sources to ensure the constant supply of raw material to our production facilities. We take the issue of ‘food vs. fuel’ very seriously and emphasize sustainable growing methodologies and procedures that minimize impacts on edible agriculture. One of our main goals is to ensure that our plantations and crops are able to emerge as sustainable, cost-effective and efficient fuel solutions for generations to come.


A. Jatropha

Jatropha Curcas is a non-edible oil crop predominately used to produce biodiesel. In addition, Jatropha Curcas seed cake – the waste by-product of the biodiesel transesterification process – can be used to make a wide range of products including high quality paper, energy pellets, soap, cosmetics, toothpaste, embalming fluids, pipe joint cement, cough medicine, a moistening agent in tobacco, as well as a rich organic fertilizer.

Jatropha Curcas grows best on well-drained soils (preferably a PH 6-9) with good aeration, but is well adapted to marginal soils with low nutrient content. It grows well with more than 600mm rainfall per year and can withstand long periods of drought. The plant sheds its leaves during a prolonged dry season.

Jatropha Curcas prefers temperatures averaging 20-28 degrees Celsius (68-85 degrees Fahrenheit). It can, however, withstand very light frost, which causes it to lose all its leaves and may produce a sharp decline in seed yield.

One tonne of Jatropha Curcas seeds will produce up to 600 litres of biodiesel with proper management. The recommended planting rate of Jatropha Curcas is 3,030 plants per hectare (2.5 acres). Mechanical harvesting and simultaneous pruning is now available for this crop but is currently being beta-tested, as capital expenditure is significant.

Jatropha Curcas seeds can produce 60% oil content depending on:
  • Production capacity (genetics) of the plant
  • Application of advanced pruning techniques
  • Improved pollination results from establishment of bee colonies
  • The moisture level of the soil
  • The nutrient level of the soil
  • Application of foliar fertilizer 30 days before harvest
  • Stage of ripening at harvest
  • Use of high quality processing equipment
  • Processing completed within 24 hours of harvest
  • Turnkey establishment & management of Jatropha Curcas plantations include:
    • Initial soil testing and auditt
    • Site inspection / assessment
    • Nursery establishment and management
    • Plantation establishment and management (including application of advanced pruning techniques)
    • Financial feasibility study (capital, running costs, cash flow projections)
    • Advanced Jatropha pruning / harvesting techniques
    • Identification and assessment of profitable biofuel investment projects
    • Development of biodiesel refinery & production facilities
    • NEW! Labor cost savings of up to 40% with our GPS Mechanical Planting, Pruning & Harvesting technology

ACHIEVABLE JATROPHA YIELDS - Based on 3,030 plants per hectare


Beginning to yield after 8 months
    • 1st year oil yield/Ha – 4.5 tonnes
    • 2nd year oil yield/Ha – 9.0 tonnes
    • 3rd year oil yield/Ha – 13.5 tonnes
    • 4th+ year oil yield/Ha – 15.0 tonnes

The plant has a known economic lifespan of over 40 years without replanting. There are many examples of trees over 60 years producing more than 120kg of seed per year.


B. Saff Flower

  

What makes Safflower a superior, more sustainable biofuel species?
  • Carbon Sequestration – Safflower grows into a large tree with a 10-metre taproot, creating a huge carbon sink.
  • Resilience – Safflower is resistant to a wide range of adverse climatic conditions: drought, light frost, water logging, moisture stress and salinity.
  • Tolerance – Safflower can be grown with extremely poor soil types and does not require prime arable land otherwise used for food production.
  • Water and nutrients – Safflower is a nitrogen-fixing leguminous tree that can source water and nutrients from deep in the subsoil.
  • Carbon credits – Safflower’s carbon-fixing qualities qualify the tree for carbon credits.
  • Safflower easily surpasses the plantation oil yields of other oil crops such as oil palm and jatropha with high oil content per seed (45-50%).
  • Safflower plantations can be managed by smaller or unskilled workforces, as less crop maintenance is required and mechanical pruning and harvesting equipment can be used.
  • Safflower is a legume, therefore minimizing irrigation and expensive fertilizer requirements.
  • Huge yield potential – At maturity, Safflower trees regularly produce 800 – 1,000kgs of seed, per tree, every year.
  • Flexibility – Safflower thrives in temperatures from zero degrees Celsius, right up to 50 degrees Celsius.
  • Environmentally-friendly – Intensive Safflower crops sequester more than 50 tonnes of CO2 per hectare, per year.


C. Comparison Table

Biofuel/Oil Plantation Crop Comparison

  Oil Palm Jatropha Safflower
Minimum temperature 16°C 12°C 0°C
Rainfall requirement per year 1,500–3,000mm 600–2,000mm 250–2,500mm
Harvest method Manual Mechanised Mechanised
Plantation carbon credits qualified No No/td> Yes
Area managed per plantation worker 10Ha 15Ha/td> 60Ha
Trees planted per hectare 156 3033/td> 1852
Oil yield / Ha - 3 yrs 4.5 9/td> 10
Oil yield / Ha - 6 yrs 11 12/td> 23


High Yield Safflower vs Regular Pongamia Genetics


  Seeds (per kg) Seed weight (grams) Oil Content
Safflower (Hi-Yield Genetics) 400 2.5 60
Indian Pongamia Pinnata 1,600–2,000 0.5-0.6 35-35%